“I believe in Spinoza’s God, who reveals himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a God who concerns himself with the fate and the doings of mankind.” — Albert Einstein
November 24th is the birthday of Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), the Jewish-Dutch philosopher who opposed mind-body dualism (neutral monism) and identified God with nature. Spinoza’s name is frequently associated with pantheism, but there is debate about the nature of pantheism. In fact, Spinoza distinguished between God (which he calls Natura naturans) and nature (which he calls Natura naturata), making him in some ways more of a panentheist.
Quotes from Spinoza’s Ethics:
God is one, that is, only one substance can be granted in the universe.
Whatsoever is, is in God, and without God nothing can be, or be conceived.
Individual things are nothing but modifications of the attributes of God, or modes by which the attributes of God are expressed in a fixed and definite manner.